The Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) is one of the most active jihadist movements. Its success is linked to the influence of the Islamic State (IS), which has encouraged the movement to adopt a more streamlined, bureaucratic governance that limits the amount of violence committed against Muslim civilians. This has caused great tension within the Nigerian jihadist movement. The Bakura faction resists this rationalisation and adheres to sectarianism, predation and clientelism. This case study explores the variety of jihadist governance models and their determinants.